Handbook of General Animal Nutrition Udeybir Singh Chahal rockghotreamenla.gq & A.H., M.Y. Sc., Ph.D. P.S. Niranjan rockghotreamenla.gq, rockghotreamenla.gq & A.H., rockghotreamenla.gq (Gold. E-ISBN (PDF). All rights reserved. Executive Summary. An expert meeting was held to review the impact of animal nutrition on animal. Explain the role of feed additives in livestock nutrition. #. Formulate a feed ration using the Pearson square. #. Compare and contrast animal digestive systems.

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    Animal Nutrition Pdf

    WINTER COW NUTRITION. Sharon Klinger. Ruminant Nutritionist. Page 2. Corn and Cow Nutrition. Page 3. Basic Animal Nutrition. • Water. • Energy. • Protein. PDF | On Oct 3, , K. Dhama and others published Animal Nutrition. PDF | On Jan 1, , M.W.A. Verstegen and others published The practice of animal nutrition in the 21st century.

    Get Citation Wu, G. Principles of Animal Nutrition. Mammals, birds, fish, and shrimp require nutrients to survive, grow, develop, and reproduce. As an interesting, dynamic, and challenging discipline in biological sciences, animal nutrition spans an immense range from chemistry, biochemistry, anatomy and physiology to reproduction, immunology, pathology, and cell biology. Thus, nutrition is a foundational subject in livestock, poultry and fish production, as well as the rearing and health of companion animals.

    These policies should include reducing production costs, facilitating trade and providing targeted price support for the poorest and vulnerable groups. While there is a consensus that over-consumption of animal-based products can cause health problems, this is generally not the case in most developing countries, where under-consumption of animal-source foods is more typical.

    Policies in poor countries should facilitate access to animal-source foods by those groups and communities that remain under-nourished. Evidence Micronutrients: Ianotti, L. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 1 : Child height gain is associated with consumption of animal-source foods in livestock-owning households in Western Kenya.

    Public Health Nutrition 20 2 : Meat supplementation improves growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes in Kenyan children. Journal of Nutrition 4 — Comparing the value of protein sources for maternal and child nutrition.

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin 34 2 Food composition tables in resource-poor settings: exploring current limitations and opportunities, with a focus on animal-source foods in sub-Saharan Africa. British Journal of Nutrition 10 — Milk and dairy products in human nutrition. Rome: FAO. Focus: the difficult livestock issue.

    He developed the Thaer hay equivalents relating all feeds to 10 lb of meadow hay e.

    Lusk 1 credits Magendie 22 as the first to separate foods into protein, fat, and carbohydrate components and the extensive studies of Liebig 23 to show that these were the components being burned in metabolism. Liebig, however, postulated that fat and carbohydrates were the source of oxidation, and protein was broken down but not oxidized by muscle work. This conceptual error coupled with his prominence as the authority of the day delayed progress in understanding of protein-energy interactions for perhaps 40 y.

    Their work was dismissed until several other animal and human experiments [e. Rubner's 26 extensive calorimetric studies followed with concomitant determinations of the caloric content of excreta led to formulation of the Isodynamic Law: that food nutrients are interchangeable on an energy-equivalent basis, providing protein is adjusted for urea excretion in the urine e.

    Henneberg and Stohman heavily influenced the evaluation of feeds and foods through their experiments with farm animals in the years following the establishment in of the Agricultural Experimental Station at Weende, Germany 2. In addition to refuting the Leibig protein model, they also began to explore the role s of plant cell wall fiber, incorporating the chemical analysis technique of Howard Harsford, a Harvard chemist who boiled grains in acid and then alkali successively to isolate the fiber.

    From these studies the Weende method of feedstuff analysis was developed. The technique separated all feeds into 5 components: water, fat, crude protein, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract by difference. This concept with relatively minor modifications, e. Henneberg and Stohman also collected and analyzed feces and urine, exploring the digested and metabolized portions of nutritive ingredients of various feedstuffs.

    Much of the dietary cellulose and pentosans disappeared and were found in respiratory products, prompting the conclusion that fibrous components had nutritive value. Also noteworthy was that equivalence of digestible nutrients among feeds did not always result in equivalent animal responses, leading to respiration experiments and to evidence for unequal values of a unit of digestible energy depending on the source of dietary carbohydrate, a forerunner of the concept that heat increment varies with type of carbohydrate.

    Early energetics research in the United States began when USDA scientists 28 built a Rubner-type calorimeter over a 5-y period and were successful in confirming that the Rubner heat production concepts established with dogs also applied to man. An important result of Armsby's findings was that the specific dynamic effect was considerably greater in ruminants than in dog or man, which implied that this heat increment of feeding must be considered for feedstuff energy evaluation and led to the Net Energy NE concept.

    The NE value of feedstuffs and parallel NE requirement of the animal have taken many forms and have generated a widely used principle for formulation of ruminant diets around the world. ICAR feeding standard was developed in - - - - - - year under the chairman ship of - - - - - - - - - -. Talapatra developed methods to estimate - - - - - in feeds and fodder. IVRI Izatnagar was established in year- - - - - - - -.

    NDRI Kamal was established in - - - - - - year. Proximate analysis of feed stuffs was given by - - - - - - - - and William Prout explained the - - - - - - - - -. Study of recycling poultry waste as a feed stuff is given by NRC, started publication of Nutrient requirement for live.: Biological experiments performed in test tube is called - An agent which inhibits fermentation is known as - - - Embryo of any seed is called - - - - - - - - where as hard outer covering of nuts is called - - - - - - - - A fixed amount of feed for an animal fed for a 24 hour period is called - - - -.

    A protein of low biological value present in Zea maize is referred as - - - - - -. Mention the contribution of five scientists in the field of animal nutrition. Name the three national institutes involved in research activities attires in the field of animal nutrition. Mention the name of five books of animal nutrition with their author or authors including three Indian authors' books. How nutrition play important role in animal production and health.

    Mention any five researches, which proved to be a mile- stone in the field of animal nutrition. The animal body derives all the nutrients for its physiological functions from the digestion of plant and plant products with limited amount of animal origin feeds such as fish meal and milk. We must know the chemical composition of farm animals to understand their nutrient requirement and composition of plants because they furnish most of the food for livestock.

    Chemical composition of plants and animals: Plants and animals tissues are made up of similar type of chemical substances but their relative amounts are variable. Plants are analysed by proximate method of analysis given by Henneberg and 5tohmann Whereas, animal body was first analysed by Lawes and Gilbert by slanghter experiments.

    Most of the nutrients present in plants and animals are arranged in to six groups, which are water, protein, carbohydrate, fat, mineral and vitamin. Plants and their by-products show much larger differences in the chemical composition than the animals. The greater parts of the energy trapped as a chemical energy within the plant itself and the animals use this energy. Thus, plants store and animals dissipate energy. The approximate chemical compositions of some plants, animals and their by-products have been given in Table 2.

    Table 2. On fresh basis as such basis: On as such basis means expressing the chemical composition of the feed as is fed to the animals. The advantage of this expression is that it helps in computation of ration. On dry matter basis: Chemical composition of feed stuffs is expressed on dry matter basis. The advantage of dry matter basis is that various feed stuffs can be compared among themselves by bringing at same standard unit of measurements.

    The average chemical composition in round figures of the common Indian feed stuffs is given in Table- 2. Leguminous hay Though the plants and animal bodies are made up of same constituents but their proportion is variable. So there are a lot of differences in animal and plant composition. In animals the major structural material is protein and minerals in the ratio of 4: Other differences are tabulated as: Parameters Animal Plants 1.

    Major constituent Water Water 2. Major organic Protein Carbohydrates constituent 3. Structural Protein and Carbohydrates component mineral Cellulose, Hemicellulose etcl 4. Reserve material Fat Carbohydrates Starch Glycogen 5. Carbohydrates Less More amount 6. Minerals amount Generally Wide variation constant to species 7. Variation in Less Wide composition Factors affecting chemical composition of plants: The chemical composition of plants depends very much upon their growth.

    The following factors affect the plant composition: Plant factor: There is a marked difference in the chemical composition between the different varieties of the same species of forage because of different genetic material.

    Agro-climatic condition: When a forage plant is exposed to variable agro-climatic conditions it shows variable growth performance, which directly reflects the chemical composition. The factors like atmospheric temperature and humidity affect the chemical composition of plants. Cultivation practices: The cultivated forages, under the same agro-climatic conditions perform in different ways depending on the cultivation practices. The seed rate, seed treatment, time of sowing, method of sowing, manure and fertilizer, irrigation, weeds and disease control measures not only influence the growth and yield of the forages but also chemical composition.

    Stage of growth: There is a relationship between the stage of growth of the plants and its chemical composition.

    The content of crude protein, soluble ash, phosphorus and pot- ash is higher just before flowering and goes down at bloom and seed formation stage whereas, crude fibre and dry matter content increase as the plant matures.

    Ether extract goes down with the progressive maturity of the plant. Processing and preservation practices: The changes in chemical composition of plants are very much influenced by method of processing and preservation. Different processing methods may change particle size, particle shape, nutrient contents and also composition of plant materials. Biochemical basis of soil, plant and animal: The plant synthesized their feed from CO2 and H 20 in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll in the form of carbohydrates, which is structural as well as storage component of plants.

    They absorb minerals Inorganic component as well as water from soil and precede various biochemical reactions in plant body. Many factors like applicati0n of manures and fertilizers, irrigation, stage of growth, frequency of cutting, type of variety and strain and soil composition affect the chemical composition of the plant.

    As the composition of soil changes, it also affects composition of plants. Similarly, animals utilize the plants and plant by products as their food. So composition of plants and soil also reflected into animal body composition. When plants and animals died, they are mixed into soil as a decaying organic material or as inorganic material when these are burnt. Animals also nourished the soil by their faeces, urine and other excretion and waste- products.

    Similarly plants dropped their dried leaf and fruits on the soil. So plant and animals affect the chemical composition of soil and the soil also have the same function. So there is a close inter-relationship between plants, animals and soil.

    And they are closely interrelated with each other. This indicates the biochemical basis of soil, plant and animals. Fill in the blanks: A major constituent of animal and plant body is - - - -.

    On advancing age of maturity in plants - - - - - - - - content increases. Most of the straw has - - - - - percent moisture con- tent. Plants synthesize complex materiaJs from simple substances in the presence of sun light by the process of - - - - - - Q.

    Write short notes on following. Factor affecting chemical composition of plants. Importance of plants composition in animal nutrition.

    Importance of animal body composition in animal nutri- tion.

    Comparison of plants and animal body composition. Inter-relationship between plant, animal and soil compo- sition. Doubtless, water is the most important dietary essential nutrient.

    Loss of about 1j5th of body water is fatal. Water, which is composed of hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 2: It is organic macronutrient. The water content in the plant decreases with the progressive maturity. The growing plants usually have 70 to 80 percent of water and seeds that have been thoroughly cured generally have at least percent of water. Water content in animal body may differ due to age and nutritional status of animal.

    The animal body may contain 50 to 95 percent water. In case of cattle water content is approximately 95 percent for the embryo, 75 to 80 percent at birth, 68 to 72 percent at five month and 50 to 60 percent in the mature animals. Whereas blood contains percent, muscle contains percent bones contain about 45 percent and enamel of teeth which is hardest tissue of body contains 5 percent water. Functions of Water: Water is an essential constituent of the animal body.

    It is an essential part of foodstuff. It makes the food soft and palatable. It helps in regulating body temperature.

    It helps in absorption and transportation of nutrients to different parts of the body. It is an essential constituent of almost all the juices and secretion of the body. It helps in the excretion of waste product in the form of urine, faeces and perspiration from the animal body. It acts as a solvent of many constituents of body nutrients. All the biochemical and physiological reactions take place in liquid medium. It provides shape to the body cells and essential for cell nutrition.

    The metabolic water produced inside the body help in transportation of nutrients inside the body cells. During the period of hibernation, metabolic water keeps the animal alive. It helps in maintaining the acid-base balance of the body. It helps in hearing by the ears and visions by the eye. It acts as a cushion for tissue cells and nervous system and protects the various vital organs against shocks and inju- ries. Sources of Water: Drinking water: It is consumed by the animals from the out side source.

    Moisture content of all the feeds supplies the water requirement of the animal. It is the water, which is pro- duced due to metabolism of nutrients. It meets per- cent of water requirement in hibernating animals and em- bryo, percent in domestic animals and percent in desert animals.

    A g of each fat, carbohydrate and protein metabolism produce , 60 and 40g metabolic water, respectively. Bound water: The water, which is combined with the con- stituents of protoplasm by either physical or chemical means. It can not separated easily from protoplasm by freezing at low temperature or by evaporation at high tem- perature or under dry conditions. Daily average water requirements of domestic animals: Increased environmental temperature and humidity enhanced the water requirement in comparison to cold environment because of increased evaporative losses in hot and humid environment.

    Dietary factor: High fibrous diet like dry roughages in- creases water requirement than less fibrous diet. Salt and uric acid excretion requires more water. So intake of salt and protein whose end product is uric acid increases the water requirement. If succulent feed is given to animals than dietary water requirement is reduced. Young animals have higher water needs per unit of body size as compare to large animals.

    Animal factor: Age, stage of growth, level of production, activity, health condition and pregnancy has a direct effect on water requirement. Birds require less water as compared to mammals because uric acid is the end product of protein metabolism in birds as urea in mammals. Water metabolism: It includes absorption, homeostasis and excretion. Absorption takes place from all the parts of G. Organs of the digestive tract absorb most of the water ingested by an animal.

    A number of factors like osmotic relations inside the small intestine and nature of the carbohydrate component of the feed determine the extent to which absorption actually occurs. Water is most readily absorbed when it is taken alone as beverage, or when taken with food that after digestion forms a solution with osmotic pressure lower than that of blood plasma.

    It is the maintenance of uniformity and sta- bility of water. Water balance is affected by total intake of water and losses arising from urine, faeces, milk, saliva, sweating and vaporization from respiratory tissues. It is maintained by two mechanisms.

    Sodium chloride salt is an important for water retention. If NaCl decreased, water content is also decreased. Water if excreted from body by evaporation through skin, perspiration through expired air, and through faeces, urine, milk, tear and saliva.

    Amount lost via various routes are affected by amount of milk pro- duced, ambient temperature, humidity, physical activity of the animal, respiration rate, water consumption and dietary factor. Symptoms of deprivation of water: Anorexia, discomfort and inco-ordination in movement, decreased blood pressure and cardiac output, increased respiration rate, shrivelled skin, increased body temperature, delirium and death if deficiency of water continue. Toxic elements in water: Universal solvent property of water sometime creates problems.

    Water can dissolve unwanted material. Such water should not be used for drinking purpose. Amount of total dissolved solids TDS is a measure of the usefulness of water for animals.

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    Loss of about - - - - - - - - - - part of body water is fatal. Poultry requires - - - - - - - - - - - kg water per kg DM!. Milking animals require - - - - - - - - - - kg water per kg milk produced. High fibrous diet - - - - - - - - - - - - - - water requirement.

    Birds require- - - - - - - - water compared to mam- mals. Young animals have - - - - - - - - - water needs per unit of body size than mature animals. Angiotensin-II promotes synthesis of - - - - - - - - - Water homeostasis is controlled by two hormones viz.

    Bones and enamel of teeth contains - - - - - - and - - - - - percent water, respectively. Write short notes on the following: Important function of water. Homeostasis of water in body. Deficiency symptoms of water. Factor affecting water requirements of body. Differentiate between bound water and metabolic water. Toxic elements in water. Carbohydrates may be defined as polyhydroxy aldehyde, ketones or acids and their derivatives or compounds that yield these derivatives on hydrolysis.

    The carbohydrates are neutral chemical compounds containing the element carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with the last two elements present in the same proportion as in water mostly, but not at alL One of the example of carbohydrate where such ratio is not found in the sugar deoxyribose CsHIOOJ which is a constituent of DNA. Whereas acetic acid c;H40 2 and lactic acid C 3H 60 3 can be represented as hydrates of carbon but are not carbohydrates.

    The carbohydrates serve as both structural and reserve material in the plant. The animal body contains less than 1 percent carbohydrate, which are present in blood, muscles and liver. The carbohydrate present in animal body is also known as animal starch or glycogen.

    Based upon their digestibility and solubility, the carbohydrates can be divided into two groups. They are called nitrogen free extract NFE and include simple sugar, starch and hemicellulose, which are easily digestible in the body. They include hard fibrous sub- stance like crude fibre, cellulose and lignin.

    They are less digestible by non-ruminants and easily digested in rumi- nants by rumen microflora and microfauna. Carbohydrates serve as a major source of energy in ani- mal body. They are essential components of production, temperature control and proper functioning of the different parts of the animal body.

    They are essential components of milk as lactose. They are stored as glycogen, excess of carbohydrates in the diet is converted into fat and stored in the fat depot. These are reserve energy materials of the body in liver and muscles of animals and starch in plants. Carbohydrates are helpful in absorption of calcium and phosphorus in younger animals.

    They help the secretion of digestive juices in gastrointestinal tract. They provide suitable environment for the growth of rumen bacteria and protozoa.

    They help in peristaltic movement of food. They maintain the glucose level of plasma. They are also component of several important bio-chemi- cal compounds such as nucleic acids, coenzymes and blood group substance. They playa key role in the metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids. Classification of Carbohydrates: The carbohydrates are usually divided in to two major groups: The term sugar is generally restricted to those carbohydrates, which contain less than ten monosaccharide residues.

    Sugars are divided into two groups. The simplest sugars are the monosaccharides and they can not be hydrolysed into smaller units under reasonably mild conditions. They are divided into sub-groups depending upon the number of carbon atoms present in the molecules e. Whereas sugars containing a ketone group are classed as ketoses e.

    They can be oxidized to produce number of acids like gluconic acid, glucaric acid and glucoronic acid. The reducing properties of these sugars are usually demonstrated by their ability to reduce certain metal ions such as copper or silver in alkaline solution. Pentoses have the general formula CSHS. The most important member of this group are the aldoses, L-arabinose, D-xylose and D-ribose,and the ketoses, D-xylulose and D-ribulose.

    Occurs in pentosans as arabans. It is a component of hemicellulose and gum and present in silage. Also occurs in pentosans in the forms of xylans. These compounds form the main chain in grass hemicellulose and xylose along with arabinose produce in considerable quantities when herbage is hydrolysed with normal sulphuric acid.

    It is present in all living cells as a constituent of ribonucleic acid RNA and it is also a component of several vitamins and coenzymes. Glucose and fructose are the most important naturally occurring hexose sugar, while mannose and galactose occur in plants in a polymerized form as mannans and galcutans. This sugar occurs in plants, fruits, honey, blood and other body fluid. Glucose is the major component of many oligosaccharide, polysaccharide and glucosides. In the pure state, glucose is a white crystalline and soluble in water.

    Fructose or fruit sugar: It occurs free in green leaves, fruit and honey.

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    It also occurs in disaccharides-sucrose and in fructosans. It differs from other sugars in being laevo-rotatory and also known as fruit sugar. It occurs in polymerized form as mannan. It does not occur free in nature. It does not exist free in nature as Mannose. Sedoheptulose is an important example of a monosaccharide containing seven carbon atoms. This heptose occurs as the phosphate, as an intermediate in the pentose phosphate metabolic pathways.

    The monosaccharides linked together with a elimination of water at each linkage and-produces di, tri, tetra or polysaccharide containing 2,3,4 and large number of simple sugar molecules, respectively. The most frequently occurring oligosaccharides in nature are disaccharides, which on hydrolysis yield two moles of simple sugar.

    Disaccharides consist of two molecules of hexose sugars combine together with loss of one molecules of water. Sucrose, cane sugar, beet sugar or sacchrose: It is the familiar sugar of domestic use, widely distributed in nature and occurs in most of the plants. Sucrose is easily hydrolysed by the enzyme sucrase or by dilute acids and gives one molecule of a-D glucose and one molecule of P-D- fructose. It occurs in milk only as a product of mammary gland.

    Cow's milk contains 4. It is not as soluble as sucrose and is less sweet, imparting only a faint sweet taste to milk. On hydrolysis it produces one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose.

    Maltose or malt sugar: It is produced during the hydrolysis of starch and glycogen by dilute acids or enzymes or during the germination of barley by the action of the enzyme amylase. The barley after germination and drying is known as malt and is used in the manufacture of beer and scotch malt whisky. Maltose is water-soluble but it is not as sweet as sucrose. On hydrolysis it yields two molecules of glucose.

    Cellobiose does not exist naturally as a free sugar, but is the basic repeating unit of cellulose. It is less soluble and less sweet. The unions of three molecules of hexose sugars form trisaccharides. On hydrolysis this sugar produces glucose, fructose and galactose. It is a non- reducing sugar. Tetrasaccharides are produce by the union of four hexose residues. They are tasteless, insoluble, amorphous compounds with a high molecular weight. They are divided into two sub groups.

    They are classified according to the kind of sugar, which produce on hydrolysis. This group of polysaccharides are a polymers of monosaccharides de- rivatives, such as sugar acid eg. They are mixed polysaccharides, which on hydrolysis yield mixtures of monosaccharides and derived products. The reserve materials of most plants consist primarily of starch. When this is hydrolyzed with acids or enzymes, it is changed into dextrin, maltose and finally into glucose.

    In food this exists as a straight chain of glucose units called amylose, mixed with a branched chain structure called amylopectin. The quantity of amylose can be estimated in starch by a characteristic reaction with iodine, amylose produces a deep blue colour while amylopectin solution produce a blue violet or purple colour.

    Starch granules are insoluble in cold water, but when the suspension water is heated the granules swell and eventually the granule sacs rupture and a gelatinous is formed. Amylose Amylopectin 1. Only straight chains is there Straight as well as branched chains are present.

    Iodine test gives deep blue Iodine test gives blue violet colour orJ? The small amount of carbohydrate reserve in the liver and muscles in the form of glycogen, which is also called Animal starch".

    They form colloidal solutions, which II are dextra-rotatory. Glycogen is the main carbohydrate storage productin the animal body and plays an essential role in energy metabolism. These are intermediate products of the hydrolsis of starch and glycogen: The higher members of these transitional products produce a red colour with iodine, while the lower members do not give a colour.

    The presence of dextrin gives characteristics flavour to bread crust, toast and partly charred cereal foods. Cellulose molecule contains between to D- glucose units. Cellulose is more resistant to chemical agents than the other glucosans. On hydrolysis with strong acid glucose is produced. Enzyme produced by germinating seeds, fungi and bacteria attack cellulose and produce cellubiose, whic!: It is fermented in the rumen by the microbial enzymes and produces volatile fatty acids like acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid.

    It occurs as reserve material in roots, stems, leaves and seeds of a variety of plants. Fructans are hydrolysed to D-fructose and of D-Glucose. Inulin is the known polysaccharides belong to this group. Galactans and Mannans: These are polysaccharides, which occur in cell wall of plants. It is a component of palm seeds, clovers and Lucerne. The term pectic substance is used to refer to a group of plant polysaccharides in which D-galacturonic acid is the main constituent in which some of the free carboxyl groups are esterified with methyl alcohol and others are combined with calcium or magnesium ions.

    D-galactose and L-arabinose are also present as additional components. Pectic substances are found in peel of citrus fruit, sugar beet pulp. Pectinic acid posses gelling properties and are used in Jam making. It is a major constituent of the exoskeleton of insects and crustacea. It is the only known example of a homopolysaccharide containing glucosamine being a linear polymer of acetyl-D-glucosamine.

    Next to cellulose, it is probably the most abundant polysaccharide in nature. The hemicellulose is a group of substances, including araban, xylan and certain hexosans and polyuronides, which are much less resistant to chemical agents than cellulose. It is insoluble in boiling water but soluble in dilute alkali and hydrolyzed by dilute acids to simple sugar and uronic acid such as glucuronic and galacturonic acid.

    It is a useful plant gum and produced from the wound in the plant, although they may arise as natural exudates from bark and leaves. Acacia gum has long been familiar substance; in hydrolysis it yields arabinose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid. Mucilages are found in few plants and seeds. Linseed mucilage produces arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid on hydrolysis.

    It is sulphated polysaccharides. They are found as constituents of seaweeds and in mammalian tissues.

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    It is used as a gel-farming agent in microbial studies. Agar is a mixture of at least two polysaccharides containing sulphate ester of galactose, glucuronic acid and other compounds. Hyaluronic acid: It is grouped under amino polysaccharides. It is present in the skin, synovial fluid and umblical cord. Solutions of this acid are viscous and play an important role in the lubrication of joints. HyalurOnic acid is composed of alternating units ofD-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl- D-glucosamine.

    Chondroitin is chemically similar to hyaluronic acid but contain galactosamine in place of glucosamine. It is a major component of cartilage, tendons and bones. It is an anticoagulant, which occur in blood, liver and lung.

    On hydrolysis heparin yields glucuronic acid, glucosamine and sulphuric acid. Lignin is a high molecular weight amorphous polymer containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Lignin is not a carbohydrate but because of its association with carbohydrate it is usually discussed along with carbohydrates.

    There is a strong chemical bonds existing between lignin and many plant polysaccharides like cellulose. Lignin is resistant to strong acids and microbial action in the rumen.

    It is considered to be indigestible by the animals and is responsible for poor digestion of wheat straw and paddy straw. Carbohydrate digestion in the rumen: The bacteria, which help in carbohydrate digestion, are as follows: Substrate Species 1.

    Cellulose digester 1. Bacteriodes succinogenes 2. ButtJrivibrio fibrisolvens 3. Clostridium lochheadii 4.

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    Clostridium longisporum 5. Cillobacterium cellulosolvens 6. Acetigenic rod 7. Ruminococci sp. Starch digester 1. Clostridium lochheadii 2. Bacteriodes succinogelles 3. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 4. Streptococcus bovis 5. Bacteriodes amylophilus 6.

    Bacteriodes ruminocola 7. Succinimonas amylolytica 8. Selenomonas nlminantium 3. Hemicellulose 1. Eubacterium sp. Bacteriodes ruminicola digester 3. Bacteriodes amylogelles 4. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 5.

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