George russell lydian chromatic concept of tonal organization pdf

 
    Contents
  1. George Russell's Jazz Workshop: The Composer's Style and Original Methods of 1956
  2. Recontextualizando Russell's Lydian Chromatic Concept
  3. The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization
  4. The Lydian chromatic concept of tonal organization | Open Library

Download the Brochure in PDF Format. The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization. George Russell's book, The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal. Chromatic Concept: George Russell as Historical Theorist – Lydian Chromatic Concept, 4th ed. theoretical basis for tonal organization within the Lydian . rockghotreamenla.gq Bishop . The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization is a jazz music theory book written by George Russell. The book is the founding text.

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George Russell Lydian Chromatic Concept Of Tonal Organization Pdf

G E O R G E R U S S E L L ' S Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization VOLUME ONE: The Art and Science FOURTH EDITION: The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization is a jazz music theory book written by George Russell. The book is the founding text of the Lydian Chromatic Concept (LCC), or Lydian Chromatic Theory (LCT). Russell's work postulates that all music is based on the tonal gravity of the . Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Reconceptualizing the Lydian Chromatic Concept: George Russell as Historical Theorist Michael Unduh sebagai PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd Lydian Chromatic Concept • Chord/scale equivalence • Lydian tonal organization .

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Jorge Restrepo. Aux Dim Blues Maj 13th Maj triad ;gj: Major or altered major chords appearing over modal tonic numerals , must be regarded as simply courtesy Modal Tonic degrees other than I designate a Lydian Tonic I Major or IAltered Major chord ofthe corresponding Princi- Degrees, since they manifest totally within the Prevailing LC pal Scale being sounded with that modal tonic degree in the bass. This free-form, natural voicing is applicable to any Chart A chord family sim- ply by imposing the I Major Principal Chord of that chord family upon its designated modal tonic degree. In to Ex. Chapter , Ex.

Generally speaking, a subject's remote, contradictory, and "far out" aspects. A chromatically enhanced scale melody occurs when a member scale of the prevailing LC Scale is used as a reference for a melody featuring member scale tones enhanced by non-scale, neighboring passing tones. A member scale that is chromatically enhanced acquires additional tones taken from a tonal order of its parent LC Scale. The member scale is there- fore a framework onto which other non-scale tones are grafted.

There are five tonal orders ofthe Lydian Chromatic Scale. The most outgoing. Example v Example V I I: On the Level of Vertical Tonal Gravity, the Lydian Chromatic Scale dictated by the chord is the source of tonal organization from which the musician derives parent, member, or official1 scale melodies absolute or chromatically enhanced to sound with the chord. The musician's growing awareness of the five tonal orders of the Lydian Chromatic Scale makes it possible to also use them directly as tonal resources of the parent LC Scale.

An ingoing vertical melody is a melody derived from any of the eleven member scales ofthe Lydian Chromatic Scale determined by the chord. This scale is used as a frame for absolute or chromatically enhanced melodies. Melodies derived from alternate parent LC Scales are included in this definition. The choice of scales is always determined by each chord.

The line also makes use of chromatic enhancement as well as alternate par- ent scale choices. Official scales of the LC Scale are discussed on page of this chapter.

Let's analyze a few bars of this interesting line: Chord and scale degree selected: A minor VI 2. Parent Lydian Chromatic Scale: Member scale used: Cauxiliary diminished - 4.

Type o f melody: The E7b9 chord occurring in bars 5 and 6 is given two different scale degree choices. Both bars are examples of chromatically enhanced ingoing vertical melodies. Bars 17 and 18 employ the F aux dim, F aux dim blues and then the F aux dim scales in rapid succession. The changing of parent or alternate parent LC Scales is at the discretion of the musician; there is no law that states it must occur only on the first beat of a bar.

An alternate parent scale choice is made for the E7 chord in bars 23 and In conclusion, Lee Konitz's solo on Kary's Dance is essentially an absolute and chromaticallv enhanced ingoing vertical melody-derived from primary and alternate parent LC Scale choices manifesting on the level of vertical tonal gravity VTG. The Law of Vertical Tonal Gravity2 insists that the melody sounding with a prevailing chord must necessarily sound an ingoing vertical relationship with the chord's harmonic genre; that is, the melody must convey the genre of that chord, essentially for all or a significant part of its duration.

Melodies for a chord are derived from its designated parent [LC] Scale, especially that 1. Using the8- tone, semi-ingoing tonal order of the LC Scale. See Chapter V, page go. The seven principal scales of a chord's primary parent LC Scale will furnish the most ingoing vertical melodies.

However, they most likely will mani- fest their ingoing vertical melody as a more altered version of the prevailing chord.

This is not con- jecture or assumption, it is a matter of fact. The entire solo can be termed an "ingoing vertical melody. This is a perfect example of verti- cal tonal gravity. This will be discussed in Volume In summary: The musician has the choice of assigning to the chord any one of the following parent LC Scales, which are listed in the order of their relative close to distant relationship to the chord: Its primary parent LC Scale 2.

Within the chord's parent LC Scale the prevailing LC Scale , ingoing vertical melodies can be derived fi-om its principal scales, or official scales.

Official Scales of the Lydian Chromatic Scale In addition to a LC Scale's eleven member scales, other scales, derived fiom any ofthe five tonal orders, may also be structured on its Lyhan tonic. The only requirement for an official scale is that its primary mode must be rooted on the prevailing Lydian Tonic. This guarantees the official scale a Lydian tonic position in all twelve LC Scales. The eleven member scales of the LC Scale clearly demonstrate this. Official scales are added to the family of eleven member scales of the LC Scale at the discretion of the musician's aesthetic taste.

After adhng his or her own official scales to the eleven member scales ofthe LC Scale, the musi- cian may apply these as personalized tonal colors in any musical situation.

The following official scales of a LC Scale are mentioned because of their historical or cultural significance: I The parenthesized degree of a scale is elective. However, the seven principal scales are the most fun- damental vertical scales of a LC Scale.

Their unique capacity to contribute various types ofbasic chord colors to the eight PMG chord mansions ofthe LC Scale, while logically expanding the evolutionary ingoing to outgoing order of the LC Scale itself, establishes them as vertical scales in the purest sense within equal temperament.

It is absolutely necessary to understand that in relation to the eleven member scales, the status of official scales is extrinsic and supplemental.

Official scales are not regarded as principal structural elements of the LC Concept.

George Russell's Jazz Workshop: The Composer's Style and Original Methods of 1956

They lack the primary1 theoretical significance to replace the seven principal scales, which, in combination, form the fundamental tonal organization of the LC Western Order of Tonal Gravity, that is, the Lydian Chromatic Scale see Example I I: The chart of Example I I: It is these seven principal scales, assimilating and existing as choruparent scale unities with Western music's five basic chord categories major, minor, seventh, augmented, and diminished 2 that are the seminal source of the LC Scale and the close to distant order of its tones in relation to a Lydian tonic.

Using the interval of a fifth as the basic unit of tonal gravity and the Pythagorean ladder of fifths as its prototype, the Lydian Chromatic Order of Tonal Gravity the LC Scale embraces the two opposite poles of equal tem- perament, tonality protonicity and chromaticism atonicity , its ingoing and outgoing aspects, within the tonal organization of a single LC Scale.

It is impossible for an official scale not to belong to one of the five tonal orders of the LC Scale based on its Lydian Tonic. In fact, official scales may sometimes just be tonal order expansions, chromatic enhancements or sim- ply incomplete versions of one of the seven principal scales of the LC Scale.

As previously stated, the discovery of official scales is a matter best left to the aesthetic judgment of the musician.

Rather than inundate the student with a plethora of scales, the LC Concept provides the tonal organization of the LC Scale which is able to accommodate all official scales. All official scales are viewed as belonging to the LC Scale's extended family of ingoing scales, since their Lydian Tonic mode supports the tonical authority of that Lydian Tonic. It is not the aim of the LC Concept to dictate musical taste. It simply organizes the tonal resources of equal temperament within the most expan- sive tonal environment available: Within that environment, the musician is free to be ingoing, or to any degree, outgoing in relation to the prevailing Lydian Tonic.

However, such freedom must be exercised within the prevailing Level of Tonal Gravity in accord with its law and chief features. Gravity is being and doing, not right or wrong. Not observing the law ofthe prevailing Level of Tonal Gravity as specified by its chief features simply means that the prevailing level of tonal gravity has been transcended and therefore the music no longer acts or behaves in the manner guaranteed by its law and chief features.

In other words, the music has switched gears, and is now behaving in accord with another one of the three Levels of Tonal Gravity. This must be the existing condition when- ever the prevailing level of tonal gravity is transcended, for it is impossible for a music of any species to avoid indicating a behavioral pattern that I. These three scales alone parent all chords of the traditional tonal spectrum's five chord categories: A number of official scales exist within the nine-tone order.

You are free to derive your own official scales from its tones, or you may simply wish to use the nine-tone order itself as an official scale source of melody, and ifyou choose, harmony on the Level ofvertical Tonal Gravity.

This doesn't mean that all nine tones of a particular nine-tone order must be used with a chord. It simply suggests that either of the two tones which distinguish the nine- tone order from the seven-tone order of the LC Scale3 will be used in the manner indicated by the law of VTG, the Level of Tonal Gravity, on which this volume is focused. The augmented fifth and flat third degree of the prevailing LC Scale.

D7 C 11 This very short excerpt from the Bach Fugue in B minor represents an area ofvertical tonal gravity in which the composer exploits an official scale undoubtedly of his own design belonging to the nine-tone order of the C Lydian Chromatic Scale. Within this four eighth-note bar of the C Lydian b3 Scale's duration, Bach's contrapuntal lines create four types of chords, all implying the tone D as their prevailing modal tonic degree. Due to the scant nature of Bach's harmonies in this example, these skeletal chords leave room for more than one vertical interpretation.

However, the path of his progressional func- tional harmony is clear, and serves to narrow the field in the process of vertical labeling of individual chords. Regardless of the labeling assigned to these two vertical interpretations, the [D, G, A, Dl chord on the first eighth note of Example v The main point of Example v Bach shaped the chordmodes within bar 45a of this fugue. The use of church modes1 enhanced by chromatic tones which extend them into what the LC Concept refers to as the nine, ten, eleven, or even twelve-tone orders of an LC Scale was not uncommon in Bach's music.

Mea- sure 33 of this same B minor fugue no. These two passages are illustrated in Example. F rnin AVI It should be noted that Bach rejected, in principle, Zarlino'sl broadly acclaimed idea that only two modes existed, Ionian major and Aeolian minor. In accord with the requirements of traditional music theory, the one sharp key signature represents the G major scale as the key ofthe music.

However, the frequent use of B and C accidentals suggests that the music might have been placed in a two sharp signature the G Lydian Chromatic Scale had that option been available at the time. Viewed from the LC Concept perspective, these four bars reveal, in their melodic and har- monic mixes, a vertical tonal organization derived from and completely within the nine-tone order of the parent LC Scale dictated by each chord VTG. They also show a conscious intent to combine the nine-tone order's augmented fifth degree representingthe Lydian Augmented chord sound with its flat third degree, representing the Lydian Diminished chord sound , pitting these two opposite harmonic polarities against each other.

Ravel's vertical consciousness in the Forlane is focused on combining the eighth and ninth tones of the nine-tone order of a LC Scale to counterbal- ance the Lydian Augmented and Lydian Diminished sounds which these tones respectively represent in each of a series ofVTG alliances.

This is completely realized in the first half of bar 2 when the interval of a fifth A to E , sound- ing in the bass clef under the tones held over from bar I, creates an A minm"7, chord. It also shows how some composers obviously were applying their own vertical tonal organization, which had to be somewhat along the lines of the LC Concept, years before the Concept's initial publication, in spite of the fact that Western music pedagogy did not and does not recognize chordlscale unity as the basis for the vertical principle of Western harmony.

The B in the melody indicates his consistent relationship to the nine-tone order of the prevailing LC Scale dictated by each chord, in this instance the A LC Scale. It also shows his continuing interest in integrating the nine-tone order's opposite functions, augmented and diminished.

The use of B as an accidental might indicate that the G major key signa- ture of the piece serves only a perfunctory purpose. As this example shows, Ravel was not basing his well-conceived tonal organization simply on the G major scale. He was vertically conscious, actually a vertical adventurer in a profoundly imaginative way.

Always vertically aware, Ravel allows the A aug- mented major chord in the last half ofbar 2 to serve as the essential part of the F minmaj7chord, manifestingwithin the first three beats ofbar 3; he then proceeds to convert that chord to an F ming, b5 in beats of bar 3.

This is yet another instance of the composer's vertical awareness focused on the augmented and diminished polarities within the LC Scale's nine-tone order.

The New England Conservatory of Music in Boston has offered the Lydian Chromatic Concept as a basic and advanced level jazz theory course since Gunther Schuller appointed me to the faculty in The result is a nine-tone order chord on beats of bar 4. This is followed by the Bllb9 on beats of that bar which, in turn, resolves to an E minor chord on beats of bar 5. Within the context of the Forlane's harmonic rhythm, the E minor chord in bar 5 serves in a dual capacity as a final tonic station to which chords of the preceding four bars resolve, and as the initial chord of their repetition in bars 5 through 8.

This example reveals that Ravel is clearly relating to the nine-tone order of each chord's parent LC Scale in the manner prescribed by the Law of Verti- cal Tonal Gravity. However, viewed sim- ply as a coincidence, it would certainly not be lacking the aspect of precog- nition and clairvoyance. The important fact here is that the more interesting composers had their own personal approaches which they may have felt the need to camouflage with key signature, for example.

Recontextualizando Russell's Lydian Chromatic Concept

Nevertheless, the resemblance between the method employed by Bach and Ravel and that of the LC Concept is strik- ingin that all three are solidly rooted in the modes and in the idea of expand- ing the modes into higher tonal orders with added chromatic tones. If you were asked to create an official scale belonging to the eleven-tone order of the F LC Scale, could that scale conceivably contain fewer than eleven tones of the F LC Scale? Explain your answer. Which two tones of the F LC Scale would be required to be included in your Feleven-tone order official scale?

What single tone will not be included in the Feleven-tone order official scale? Explain why. Rely on your thinking faculty totally without looking at the answers Chap- ter VII, page until you're satisfied that you've done your best. If you've answered them correctly, your confidence and belief in the LC Concept and its objective approach will be reinforced; if not, you'll learn from your errors.

His artful and daring vertical explorations must have impressed European modernists like Ravel and Stravinsky. With his rich vertical consciousness, Hawkins expanded his vertical melodies into higher tonal orders while still sounding the harmonic identity ofvirtually each chord of a chord progression. These two approaches became the two fundamental schools of jazz improvisation, with their own ardent devotees among musicians and fans alike. Even the two founders of these schools, Hawkins and Young, couldn't help blending something of the opposite style in their playing; occasionally Hawkins would be slightly horizontal as in bars 4 and 12 of Body and Soul and occasionally Lester Young might be vertical in some part of a solo.

In his vertical improvisation, Hawkins, for the most part, stayed close to the gravity of each chord, using absolute or chromatically enhanced CE scale melodies ofthe parent LC Scale dictated by each chord. The melody over the DnlaJ7 chord in bar 20 extending through the first two beats ofbar 21 is interesting because it lends itself to various interpretations provided by the Lydian Chromatic Concept.

These interpretations are actu- ally types of VTG melodies. A general rule governing the application of the LC Concept to analysis the one to choose. Using this rule as a guide in analyzing Coleman Hawkins's solo, VTG alliance2 types 1 and z were chosen as the most ingo- ing, and, therefore, the most applicable for analyzing the music in bar As bar 20 of the solos shows, either a chromatically enhanced or a sec- ondary modal genre type ofVTG alliance may be used to explain the melody sounding over the DmaJ7 chord.

The musician is therefore given the option of choosing either the chromatically enhanced melody or SMG type of VTG alliance in analyzing the melody in bar Ifthe late 's debut ofthe solo is factored into the equation, then Coleman Hawkins would have definitely I. On the other hand, he might have even been experimenting with superimposing various scales Eb Lydian, for example on a given chord. But traditional music theory only provided the major, minor, and chromatic scale octave as a theoretical foundation, and that's not enough to embrace such complex thinking.

There was no Lydian or LC Scale to relate to as an objective and cohesive explana- tion of the full range of polymodality. Coleman Hawkins must have perse- vered within, or in spite of, the limitations oftraditional music theory, and, like so many other creative musicians of the jazz and symphonic persua- sions, created his own experimental approaches.

The musician is therefore given the option of choosing either the chromatically enhanced melody or CMG type of VTG alliance in analyzing the melody in bar However, the prevailing theoretical system for all of Western music, including jazz, was based on only two scales: On beats 1 and 2 of bar 28, Hawkins's melody very clearly spells an F minor7 chord. See Chart A and Chapter V. See bar 28 of Hawkins's solo.

Nevertheless, those last two beats of the melody do sound a vertical association with the E7 chord that cannot be ignored simply by defining the bar 28 melody as a single condition of HTG featuring the Ab major scale as the HTG melody tonic station modality in that bar.

Bar 28 of Hawkins's solo must be perceived in the context of a basic VTG analysis wherein the Abmajor scale melody of that bar is treated as a verticalized hor- izontal melody, that is, a horizontal scale melody with vertical implications.

This verticalization of a horizontal member scale may be the result of the presence of the VTG area of a single chord which the scale sounds in a hori- zontally thrusting manner1 or, by comparison, the Verticalized Horizontal Scale Melody VHSM is the result of its overrunning and spilling into a vertical encounter with a benign, incidental chord serving merely as a color of that melody.

Bars 4,12, and 28 of the B o d y and Soul solo represent perfect examples of this type of verticalized horizontal scale melody. In each of these three examples, vertical engagement of the horizontal scale melody results from the melody's spillover into the E7 chord. Therefore, beginning with this present situation and applicable hereafter in all future situations of this type, the benign overrun chord vertically engaged b y a V H S M need not be assigned a vertically accountable roman numeral.

Volume 11, Chapter IX, should shed light on the reason why verticalized horizontal scale melodies tend to sound a somewhat ingoing relationship with their benign engaged chord. This and the ensuing information are not meant to inhibit the creative musician's need to experiment.

It simply invites the attention to existing boundaries between types of tonal behavior within the Lydian Chromatic tonal spectrum. Transcending the law of the prevailing Level of Tonal Gravity places the music on a different I.

See Coltrane's Giant Steps solo, bar 3. In the process of analyzing music within any of the LC Concept's three levels of tonal graviy, it is advisable to try to choose the most ingoing and least complex explanation.

Often the Concept itselfwill direct the student to the music's most logical explanatory path. These examples also reveal several ways to interpret the same two bars 20 and 21 of the Hawkins solo. The examples on pages and demonstrate this. They are: I chromatically enhanced melody; 2 second- ary modal genre melody; 4 primary modal genre melody; 5 official scale melody; and 7 verticalized horizontal melody.

VTG alliance types 3 , 8 ,and 9 place a prevailing chord and accom- panying melody in a remote conceptual or alternate parent LC Scale envi- ronment. It is very important to understand and respect this difference between VTG alliance types. By now you know that the GCE for the level ofvertical tonal gravity is the prevailing chord chord of momentary focus. Each of these species of melodies has a best way to be represented on the Level ofVTG.

However, it was the jazz improvisers manifest destiny to be led, by intuition, to the discovery of these two funda- mental states of Western music. What, if not intuitive intelligence, could have led Hawkins and Young to so clearly define these two intrinsic qualities ofwestern music? Each of these great improvisers had a highly developed, personal methodology that crystallized into its own conscious way of navi- gating the Western chordstream: The LC Concept confirms this. Level of Vertical Tonal Gravity Analysis Bars As is most often the case, Bach employs a vertical melody to express the adventuresome harmonic and inner-modal harmonic progression of the Fantasy.

On a supra-vertical level, the Fantasy is centered on a D minor tonic station overall. Particularly interesting are the parent LC Scale alliances formed with D minor in bars 1and 2. See key signatures, page Again, the nine-tone order provides many of the exotic verticalities which contribute to the overall vertical char- acter of the piece. The fact that virtually each chord of the Chromatic Fantasy is expressed simply by a monophonic melody is a testament to Bach's high level of "verti- 1.

Overall prevailing LC scale is the Concept's term for the key of the music. With- out any accompaniment whatsoever, Coltrane's solo on his composition Giant Steps would clearly define each chord of the Giant Steps chordstream. If they ever meet, Bach and Coltrane might share an enjoyable kinship of mind. Bach might enjoy the challenge of improvising on the Giant Steps chord progressions and Coltrane, the challenge of compos- ing a Bach-style fugue.

Test 2 Construct your own ingoing vertical melody based on the chords of the test on the following page. Your melody should be derived from the parent LC Scale dictated by each chord, i. Your melody can be either an absolute or chromatically enhanced scale melody, or you can feel free to impose your own official scale on a chord as long as it contains the Lydian Tonic of the current prevailing LC Scale. You may also designate alternate parent LC Scales to a prevailing chord.

In doing this test you'll need to execute the procedures used in preceding tests. Within the designated parent [LC] Scale, proceed to note, in a bracket above the chord, the principal, member, or official scale you've chosen to be the source of a melody sounding or coloring the prevailing chord.

Progressional harmony is the LC Concept's term for traditional theory's functional harmony. It is an aspect of Horizontal Tonal Gravity due to the linear time dependency of its basic function; that function being the resolution of non-final chordmodes to finals, unfolding in a linear time span in a manner imposed by the element of harmonic rhythm. The alliance formed between the prevailing chord and its designated primary, alternate or conceptual parent [LC] Scale.

You also may want to consider that it is quite common for two successive chords of a progression to have a melody coming from the same parent scale; a situation that might call for extending the parent scale bracket over two or more bars. Note the tonal order of such tones as in g T. O,ii T. Compare the results of Test 2 with the complete analysis of Hank Mob- ley's Stella by Starlight solo on page of this chapter.

A case in point is over bars I and 2 of musical Example 17 on page The bigger the law, the greater the freedom.

Freedom is not the absence of law; it is prevalence of a big law over a plethora of small laws.

Lack of freedom is therefore the reverse: The logical conclusion being that tonal gravity is perhaps one of many derivative manifestations of cosmic gravity. If you were asked to create an official scale belonging to the eleven- tone order of the F LC Scale, could that scale conceivably contain fewer than eleven tones of the F LC Scale?

Yes, because the tonal order to which any group of tones belongs is not determined by the number of scale tones, but by the tonal order indicated by the most outgoing tone of that group. Which two tones of the F LC scale would be required to be included in your F eleven-tone order official scale? The Lydian Tonic mode of an official scale is the cause of it being classified with the ingoing scales of the LC Scale, due to the tendency of the tones of that mode to yield in support ofthe tonical integrity of the Lydian Tonic.

As the eleventh tone in the evolution- ary order of the LC Scale,l the fourth degree is the most outgoing and, conse- quently, the most definitive tone of the LC Scale's eleven-tone order. What single tone will not be included in the F eleven-tone order official scale? F or G b will be the tone excluded from an eleven-tone order official scale of the F LC Scale because, being the latter's flat second degree, its pres- ence in an official scale immediately defines it as a twelve-tone order official scale of the F LC Scale.

N o w proceed to create your o w n eleven-tone order oficial scale derived from the F L C scale. Western order of tonal gravity. He understood the economics of quality, and that the foundation of a record company had to rest on high quality. Gabler, the dean of record company CEOs, founded the Decca catalogue on quality first-and then on money-making quantity.

When Milt heard Stratusphunk and other pieces I'd done for Hal McKu- sick's Decca albums, he informed me that his door was open for any projects I had in mind. I always loved New York and decided to express my love for it in a tone poem that was centered on life in the big city, and the struggle that musi- cians faced in trying to survive there. I hired jazz poet Jon Hendricks to write a script that dealt with different aspects of New York life. Jon would introduce each aspect with his prose; that idea was then expressed musi- cally.

Milt considered it an excit- ing idea and gave the go ahead. The first session was almost a disaster. We started with Manhattan and 1 must say that the music, as played by that band, sounded startlingly good.

The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization

But when we got to the tenor solo, Coltrane floundered, and actually refused -- I. See Discography. He called for a break while he took the music over to a corner of the church studio and began to practice the chord changes I had written.

With a big band of high-salaried New York City studio musicians and jazz stars, a "break" is not what the producer needed to hear. Even though Coltrane had received a lot of publicity, he was still the new kid on the block in the studio jazz scene. A few musicians showed their annoyance and started saying that Coltrane couldn't read chord changes.

This was embarrassing for Coltrane and for me. But what could I say? The Bop period had shown just how complex jazz could be. His later album Giant Steps proved that. This was a time when he was working on everything from the open modal style of Miles Davis to his own intensive chord substitution methodology. It took a few years, but I finally figured that since Coltrane hadn't studied the music prior to the session, he hadn't considered the chord substitutions I'd made in the process of arranging Manhattan.

He later told me that he didn't like this solo. That caused me to hear it negatively as Coltrane compromising. But that was only for a brief period. It is a fantastic solo. I heard Trane entering his solo in his typical manner, especially following the heavy, building brass fanfare. So I com- posed the first six beats ofthe solo in the way I heard him entering. Neither Bill Evans nor Coltrane studied with me formally.

In its entirety, here is John Coltrane's solo on Manhattan. However, the B b l lchord arpeggiated on beat 4 of I parent scale of. He continues to play the Ab Lydian melody indicated by the dotted line bracket overlapping it into bar The F minor triadon beat 1 ofbar 53 could be viewed as a fragment ofthe C aux dim scale.

However, Coltrane's Lydian Scale indicating melody on beat 4 ofbar 52 weighs heavily in favor of him overrunning that scale on the first beat of bar 53, thereby qualifying it to be judged a SMG of the C LC Scale. However, it is the melody's sounding of G major on the C g chord on beat 3 that leaves no doubt that the melody in bar 19 represents a horizontal melody establishing a single "condition" small area of Horizontal Tonal Gravity.

In this way the major scale and other horizontal scales affirm the tonical authority of their fundamental do.

This manner of relating to and emphasizing the tonic is an intrinsic feature of the horizon- tal scale. The horizontal scale relies on the aspect ofresolution to project its tonical do in an aggressively direct horizontal manner. For example, the natural order of the major scale vertically insinuates first its non-final subdominant major chord, and then its tonical major chord.

The major scale's fourth degree together with its horizontal qualities is repositioned on the flat sixth degree of that scale's relative VI minor Aeo- lian mode.

The natural order of Aeolian mode VI of the C major scale for example , vertically insinuates its non-final D minor I1 minor chord, then proceeds to infer its A minor VI minor chord.

All these considerations justifjr the melody in bar 19 being designated as a G major scale HTG melody. An almost identical situation to bar 19 example 23 occurs in bar 59, when a pure G major scale melody is imposed on the G major and C7 chords ofthat bar. As in Giant Steps, bar 17, Coltrane may have needed a break from rapid fire vertical calculations.

The G major scale melody sounding in bar 59 up to beat 2 of bar 60, is viewed as a single condition of HTG featuring a G major scale melody prevailing in bar 59, up to beat 2 ofbar On beat 1of bar 60, Coltrane's overlapping G major scale melody is converted, automatically, to a SMG melody of the E Lydian [LC] Scale, the vertical scale dictated by the chords and remaining melody in bar Once an innovator knows a certain approach works, it is likely to become a permanent part of his or her "bag," i.

The surprising num- ber of overruns in this solo might suggest that this is the situation here. Within the context of a HTG area, i t is not necessary to assign primary modal tonic degree roman numerals to chords. On the last two beats ofbar 36, Coltrane's vertical consciousness of the E7 ' 5 chord leads him to sound a melody derived from that chord's pri- I mary parent scale, Ab Lydian Augmented. This results in transforming the state or area into a single "condition" small area of supra-vertical tonal gravity SVTG manifesting within its designated LC Scale e.

He instantly decides to approach these two verticalities in a somewhat outgoing manner. That is, these vertical calculations were necessary in order for Coltrane to approach them supra-vertically. Such consistency indicates a pattern, a methodology that Coltrane may have applied to expand what the LC Concept was first to label vertical tonal gravity into what it was first to label supra-vertical tonal gravity.

The degree to which the E Lydian, eleven tone order melody of bar 28 transcends the harmonic genre of it two chords, B minor and E7, causes that bar to be classified as a single condition fractional area of SVTG. A melody that transcends the genre of accompanying chords on the Level ofVTG cannot be judged as "wrong. Whether he knew those terms or not, this analysis shows him thinking along these lines.

The superimposition of Sec- ondary Modal Genre on that prevailing gravity centering alliance GCA cre- ates a polyrnodal texture, as in bars 28 and 29 beats 1 and 2 of example It is also possible for SMG harmonic vertical structures to occur within a prevailing VTG alliance as moving harmonic enhancements of the prevail- ing chordmode See analysis of Ondine, bars 4 and 6. The element that enables the chordmodes of any Lydian Chromatic Scale to manifest as secondary modal genre within the prevailing LC Scale on any of the three levels of tonal gravity is the five tonal orders of the LC Scale.

For example, ingoing melodic resources of the Lydian Chromatic Scale precede its outgoing melodic resources in order of development.

The Lydian chromatic concept of tonal organization | Open Library

The order of discussion of all subjects within this text follows the same ingoing to outgoing pattern of exposition. However, in the interest of thoroughness in examining a major topic of a basically ingoing nature such as the Level of Vertical Tonal Gravity, it is sometimes necessary to involve a preliminary outgoing manifestation of that essentially ingoing topic. See chart on page 14 of Chapter These creative musicians blended secondary modal genre, a potentially outgoing tonal resource, with the basi- cally ingoing tonal resources of Vertical Tonal Gravity.

But regardless of how experimental these and many other jazz musicians were, they all seemed to have an intuitive respect for the Law of Vertical Tonal Gravity. This is indicated when they insist on sounding an ingoing ver- tical melody after a secondary modal genre flurry. They remembered that the three levels of tonal gravitv have to do essen- tially with melodv and how melodv behaves, melody being the most impor- tant information-conveying element of music.

Passive Vertical Tonal Gravity Question: The Law of Vertical Tonal Gravity states that "virtually" each chord of a chord progression must be accompanied by a melody that acti- vates the chord by projecting its harmonic genre for a convincing part of its duration. At the same time, the term "virtually" seems to imply that some chords on the level ofVTG don't need to be expressed by an active vertical melody, and may simply consist of a single, sustained tone.

Is this a contradiction? Author's Response: The phrase "virtually each chord of a progression" used in connection with the Law of VTG allows for a special condition of the level of VTG that enables a single note of the vertical melody to be sus- -- I. The level of SVTG, in its more or less outgoing state, is the only level of tonal gravity that will accommodate the continuous superimposition of SMG.

During this period, the presence of an active vertical melody is either non-existent or co-exists with the sustained tone of the main melody dominant melody as a subsidiary, supportive melody. Isn't it easy to confuse this condition of passive vertical tonal gravitywith the way melody behaves on the Level of HTG?

I would think that in the absence of an active vertical melody, any sustained tone or longer and larger note values in the melody would signal the presence of a broader level of tonal gravity. Author5 Response: It is with pride and pleasure that we present this fourth and final edition. Click here to visit www. If you could sit down and write stuff like that out He wrote stuff like that and it was incredible. George Russell who at the time was working on his Lydian Chromatic Concept Here was a means for breaking free from tonal cliches while maintaining some amount of restraint.

Russell builds a prototype chromatic scale starting on the Lydian Tonic by stacking fifths, skipping the interval between the seventh and eighth tones. Using C as the Lydian Tonic yields the following note scale with enharmonic respellings: Thus the Lydian Chromatic Scale and all its derivatives contain only Pythagorean intervals.

Russell posited that tonal gravity emanates from the first seven tones of the Lydian mode. As the player ventures further from the Lydian tonic however and further up the circle of fifths , the tonal gravity shifts. For example, if notes further up the circle of fifths e. Russell's theory has had far reaching effect especially in the realm of modal jazz. Art Farmer said that it "opens the door to countless means of melodic expression" [6] and critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt described it as "the first work deriving a theory of jazz harmony from the immanent laws of jazz" and as "the pathbreaker for Miles Davis ' and John Coltrane 's 'modality'".

John Coltrane's modal jazz is usually analyzed using Russell's method. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Cited in Bruno Nettl, Melinda Russell; eds. In the Course of Performance:

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