2. Paleopalynology
  3. Paleopalynology and paleoecology of Calamus-like disulcate pollen grains
  4. Traverse A. Paleopalynology

Paleopalynology, second edition, provides profusely illustrated treatment of fossil PDF · Why One ''Does'' Paleopalynology and Why It Works. Alfred Traverse. The first € price and the £ and $ price are net prices, subject to local VAT. Prices indicated with * include VAT for books; the €(D) includes 7% for. Germany, the. PDF | Because of their small size and vast abundance in various types of sedimentary rocks, microfossils have found a multitude of applications.

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Paleopalynology Pdf

This book provides complete coverage of all aspects of the study of all fossil palynomorphs yet studied. It is a profusely illustrated treatment. The book serves . Paleopalynology, second edition Alfred Traverse Hardbound, ISBN , Volume Neoproterozoic Geobiology and Paleobiology. Paleopalynology second edition pdf. Paleopalynology: Second Edition Alfred Traverse Publisher: Springer Release Date: This book.

Early history[ edit ] The earliest reported observations of pollen under a microscope are likely to have been in the s by the English botanist Nehemiah Grew , [4] who described pollen and the stamen, and concluded that pollen is required for sexual reproduction in flowering plants. By the late s, as optical microscopes improved and the principles of stratigraphy were worked out, Robert Kidston and P. Reinsch were able to examine the presence of fossil spores in the Devonian and Carboniferous coal seams and make comparisons between the living spores and the ancient fossil spores. In particular, his Kristiania lecture of was important in gaining a wider audience. The methodology of pollen analysis became widespread throughout Europe and North America and revolutionized Quaternary vegetation and climate change research. There is a study of pollen samples taken from sediments of Swedish lakes by Trybom ; [11] pine and spruce pollen was found in such profusion that he considered them to be serviceable as " index fossils ". Georg F. Sarauw studied fossil pollen of middle Pleistocene age Cromerian from the harbour of Copenhagen. Weber in H. Weber appear to be among the first to undertake 'percentage frequency' calculations.

In the future the number of species should be extended hopefully to the entire Phanerozoic palynomorphs. Introduction Paleopalynology sensu stricto, as the study of fossil pollen and spores, has become widely used for many geological, palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological studies, as well as pure palynology.

Sporomorphs are successfully used in stratigraphy, for dating rocks and correlating continental and marine sections from different localities. Quantitative palynological analyses allow to reconstruct past floras and to observe how they have changed through time; thus, it enables us to reconstruct palaeo climatic variations.

Academics, oil companies and many other private or public institutes employ palynologists for various uses. Each of these palynological applications needs a strong accuracy in spores and pollen identification by the scientists, based on a deep and solid taxonomical background.

Over the years a huge amount of species has been instituted for the Triassic from various paleogeographical realms. Many of these species have been afterwards emended and become synonyms. New studies allowed to refine the sporomorph classification and the use of instruments like the Scanning Electron Microscope SEM and the Transmission Electron Microscope TEM has enriched the knowledge on pollen morphology and ultrastructure.

Pollen and spores found in situ have improved the knowledge on the botanical affinity of many sporomorphs. A lot of paleopalynological literature has been produced, but data are dispersed in a sea of papers often written in languages other than English and hard to find.

These factors could preclude a wide diffusion of knowledge and promote the proliferation of species and synonyms. Many catalogues and bibliographies were created in the past, such as the Triassic Palynomorphs: index to genera and species published by Boersma and colleagues in It is an index of genera and species with relative references, stratum typicum and locus typicus, not only limited to spores and pollen but also extended to other palynomorphs.

A very famous catalogue of fossil sporomorphs has been created by Jansonius and colleagues : the Jansonius files are a set of more than three thousand paper-cards catalogued in alphabetical order; every record card contains information about one genus including original descriptions, drawings and bibliography.

It has been a precious tool for scientists but is: i not easy to handle as it requires an a priori identification of the taxon, ii not very simple to transport and iii limited to a generic level. Many other paper-atlases have been developed for regional or local palynology and almost every palynologist has created his own one, jealously held near the microscope.

Computers and Internet have strongly simplified the search, collection and sharing of palynological data; search engines like Palynodata Palynodata Inc. Furthermore, computer-based pollen catalogues have been produced for private or public use mainly to collect photos and references.

The New Zealand fossil spores and pollen: an illustrated catalogue Raine et al. Most of the existing databases are private, so used by one palynologist or a small community of scientists working in the same lab, and often regional, i. The article This new provision could have a strong impact in the taxonomy of pollen and spores reducing the number of species and genera often distinguished only on these differences Chaloner, Arrangement of the knowledge on sporomorphs in one database comprehensive of all instituted species could resolve part of the problems that afflict taxonomy of paleopalynology as well as to simplify palynologists lives.

It is possible to open the records of species click on the button Species , the search engine Nehemiah s Eye and a file with instructions Read Me. Every record contains the name of species, author, year of publication, synonyms, derivatio nominis, original diagnosis and description, remarks and comparisons, locus typicus and stratum typicum, biostratigraphic and geographical distribution, botanical affinity and references.

Piel, K. Palynology of Oligocene sediments from Central British Columbia. Potoni6, R. Senckenbergiana Lethaea, Synopsis der Gattungen der Sporae Dispersae. Ramanujam, C. Pollen Spores, 8: Roche, E. Analyse palynologique pollen et spores de divers gisements du Tongrien de Belgique. Salujha, S. Indian Stratigr. Paleobotanist, 21 3 : Palynostratigraphy of Tertiary sediments of the Tulamura Anticline, Tripura. IV Int. Smith, A. Mesozoic and Cenozoic paleocontinental maps.

University Press, Cambridge, 63 pp. Steninger, F. Paleogeography and palinspastic reconstruction of the Neogene of the Mediterranean and Paratethys. In: J. Dixon and A. Robertson Editors , The geological evolution of the eastern Mediterranean. Thanikaimoni, G. Les Palmiers: Palynologie et syst6matique. Tschudy, R. Stratigraphic distribution of significant Eocene palynomorphs of the Mississippi embayment.

Van der Hammen, T. E1 desarrollo de la flora Colombiana en los peridos geologicos, I. Maestrichtiano hast. Cuticular fragments, especially if well preserved stomata are present, on the other hand, can often be identified. However, their identification is a complex matter, a field of its own, and few palynologists do more than report presence. Very abundant presence in shale usually indicates lacustrine or fluvio-lacustrine deposition.

Some palynologists use relative amounts of cuticles, wood fragments, sporomorphs, dinoflagellate cysts, etc. They are occasionally abundant in paleopalynological preparations. I am not aware that they are at present regarded by anybody as indicating much paleoenvironmentally. Degraded algal and other plant tissues can sometimes indicate probable marine deposition.

Most of them turn out to be animal remains of various kinds. Lepidopteran insect wing scales, for example, are chitinous and regularly show up, are in the palynomorph size range, and have a quite characteristic fan shape. So far, they are only curiosities for the palynologist, but one can imagine their becoming significant some day. Other sorts of chitinous arthropod remains such as insect skeletal parts, and crustacean parts of many sorts see Korhola and Rautio, and even eurypterid cuticle pieces cf.

Miller, a also are frequently seen by paleopalynologists in their preparations, especially if the more corrosive treatments have been avoided. Van Waveren , described and illustrated many more or less ovoid to spherical bodies in the palynomorph size range, evidently chitinous, which she identified as copepod eggs, and other copepod parts, from Holocene sediments of Indonesia. They survived full-scale palynological maceration.

She also described tintinnid, apparently chitinous remains from the same sediments. In recent years there have been a number of studies of testate amoebae see Fig. These protozoans have shells at least partly in the palynomorph range; some are larger. The shells that survive maceration have proteinaceous binding material either as a discrete wall material or as a binder for miscellaneous organic and inorganic particles.


Study of testate amoebae in sediments can reveal important facts about the local hydrology during sedimentation Beyens and Meisterfeld, ; Booth, Hochuli has described robust organic-walled, microfossils found in macerations of Oligocene siltstones and resembling in what paleopalynology is and is not 15 Figure 1.

Depending on interpretation of problematic structures, such structures go back to early Silurian. They presumably represent a stage in the life cycle of some algal species, and they must be considered palynomorphs, although nannofossils are not.

Doubtless there are more such surprises in the rocks, but it is by now pretty 16 paleopalynology certain that the major groups of things belonging in the palynomorph category are those mentioned in this chapter. The general stratigraphic range of palynomorphs is shown in Fig.

A liberal view of what is a palynomorph is assumed, in order to be as complete as possible. The development of pollen research follows the history of plant anatomy and morphology in general and is dependent to a large degree on developmental stages of the microscope.

Nehemiah Grew first observed pollen microscopically in Britain about Malpighi noted differences in size and color of pollen about the same time.


Various people later studied the biology of pollen and spores, especially with reference to the function of pollen in fertilization of ovules, in the 18th century. Camerarius usually gets credit for proving the maleness and fertilizing function of pollen in the late 17th century. Curiously, ancient peoples knew what pollen was for, and such aboriginal people as American Indians have understood the maleness, and the precise function, of pollen, apparently for thousands of years: pollen played a prominent role in some Indian puberty ceremonies.

Southwestern Indians seem also to have understood the dietary advantage of eating pollen, long before health-food stores began promoting it see Fig. The Indians perhaps noticed that various insects, especially beetles and hymenopterids, use pollen as a major food staple. In the 19th century, with the coming of much improved microscopes, the anatomy of pollen and spores was carefully studied and catalogued by German scientists, e. Bauer, described species of pollen for this purpose see Graham and Barker, Pollen morphologists of today continue the work of Brown, Fritsche and Fischer, employing better optical microscopes, and especially scanning and transmission electron microscopes SEM, TEM.

Ultramicrotome techniques, in conjunction with transmission electron microscopes TEM have played a critical role in recent years in elucidating the internal structure of the exine.

Ehrenberg Fig. The pollen used by Silas John a shaman was apparently Typha, although the symbol would seem to represent a Zea tassel, the pollen of which was and is also used ceremonially by Indians. The jars illustrate the widespread modern use of pollen as a dietary supplement.

Such pollen is sometimes harvested by human vacuum cleaners, sometimes taken from domesticated bees, which use pollen for hive nutrition. The human use is based on the vitamin, mineral, and nutritive lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids content of pollen.

Apiaries sell untreated bee leg loads stripped from worker bees by a device at the hive entrance—hence the variously colored blobs in the jar, each being one leg-load.

By , Schenck was illustrating with good line drawings the in situ fossil spores he removed from fossil fern compressions. Reinsch in published the first photomicrograph of a fossil spore. It was of Carboniferous age, and the genus to which it belonged was long afterwards named, in his honor, Reinschospora, by Schopf et al. Bennie and Kidston published in descriptions of megaspores from the Carboniferous of Scotland.

Actually, that is about where the paleopalynological matter ended for many decades, with somewhat peripheral exceptions, such as studies in the early s by Thiessen of spores seen in Pennsylvanian coal thin-sections, and unpublished studies by Wodehouse of about the same time of pollen and spores in thin-sections of the Paleogene Green River Oil Shales. Details of this story are related by Erdtman A Swedish botanist, Lagerheim, realized that the pollen in, e.

Hoffmeister, — From Saxony in Germany, Ehrenberg was originally a mycologist, but in he presented a paper to the Berlin Academy of Science, in which most of the major categories of what we now call palynomorphs what paleopalynology is and is not 19 peat deposition, and he published some brief notes on preliminary studies based on rather primitive pollen spectra.

Lagerheim himself depended on previous work based on geological and paleobotanical studies of Blytt, Sernander, and others, showing that vegetational changes marked the climatic history of the latest Neogene Faegri , Von Post was apparently not as versatile in languages as some Scandinavians he published only in Swedish and German , and did not widely popularize the new subject outside of Scandinavia.

He was, in fact, so good at English and so confident of his talents that he would argue nuances of the language even with well educated, native speakers of English such as this writer!

He was often, but not always, right! The terminology he developed for pollen morphology came to be dominant, partly because of the pre-existing void, partly because of his talent for coining new terminology, sometimes even in anticipation of the discovery of features not yet found!

The science of palynology is usually reckoned as commencing in with the introduction by Von Post of analytical pollen diagrams for post-glacial sediments. Von Post, a Swede, was developing ideas actually pioneered earlier by Gustav Lagerheim and others in Scandinavia.

Von Post did not publicize pollen analysis much outside of Scandinavia, partly for linguistic reasons. He was very conscious of his contribution and would not have liked appearing beneath Von Post here, as Erdtman felt Von Post never sufficiently recognized his work.

Hoffmeister, a paleontologist for Esso Exxon , more than any other one person in industry was responsible for recognition that palynomorphs were a critically important group of microfossils that could be used for practical correlation, where other microfossils failed or were less satisfactory.

One must not deduce from this bit of whimsy that Erdtman was jovial and light-hearted. He could excoriate a younger palynologist for such a self-defined infraction as publishing a trilete spore photo with no radius of the laesura pointing up; b Knut Faegri — , a keen student of pollination mechanisms, was the leading Norwegian Pleistocene-Holocene palynologist for decades.

Though not primarily a paleopalynologist, he especially contributed to paleopalynology by his justly famed Textbook of Pollen Analysis the first edition co-authored by J. Iversen ; what paleopalynology is and is not 21 his prolific production of publications served to popularize and establish his ideas.

Paleopalynology and paleoecology of Calamus-like disulcate pollen grains

In his later years he became rather intolerant of what he regarded as deviant, i. But from the time of Erdtman and Von Post, this subject, linked to plant geography, ecology generally, paleoclimatology, and archeology-anthropology, tended to go its own way, as it still does today. Most of the practitioners are botanically rather than geologically oriented, and the field and laboratory techniques for taking cores of the relatively shallow, usually unindurated post-glacial sediments and processing them to obtain the usually well preserved palynofloras are more or less special to Holocene palynologists.

Unfortunately, because of all these factors, and other, more personal ones, there tends to be little contact between pollen-analysts and paleopalynologists. This was not always the case, and some pioneer paleopalynologists, such as A. Raistrick in Britain, L. Wilson Fig. Schopf —78 , American paleobotanist, coal petrologist and paleopalynologist, made very important early contributions to establishing the systematic study of palynomorphs on a sound basis.

For example, Schopf, et al. Unfortunately, coal beds are very difficult to correlate by spores because coal is primarily derived from woody swamp peat. Also the palynofloras of coals of an area usually represent a persistent biofacies that tends to recur mostly in response to the environment.

Thus, within a given time frame, it is not always possible to correlate coal beds by correlating the facies, as almost identical palynofloras may occur in widely separated horizons. Even now it is hard to convince some field geologists that it is usually better to collect the associated shales than coals for palynology, and that presence of plant megafossils in a shale does not necessarily correlate with presence of palynomorphs!

Traverse A. Paleopalynology

It should be noted that some palynologists Kosanke, ; Smith and Butterworth, ; Peppers, have successfully correlated coal beds by their spore-content, despite the attendant difficulties.

Other, more geologically oriented persons such as Kuyl were soon involved, however, and even such botanists as Jan Muller were geologically adept enough to assure a sound geological approach. By the late s, they also had a laboratory in Venezuela under R. Tschudy, but the center of their palynological operation soon shifted to Oklahoma, where W. Hoffmeister Fig. American paleopalynology owes a great debt also to J.

Schopf Fig. Bureau of Mines and the U. Geological Survey. The classic work of Schopf et al. About the same time, nearly all the other oil companies in the world of any size introduced palynology, at least into their research programs.

Esso now Exxon-Mobil and the Shell group were in the thirties and remain today the giants of the oil industry worldwide, and the early use by them of palynology for stratigraphic and paleoecological purposes was in my opinion pivotal, though others also contributed, such as J.